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Assessing the Economic Contribution of Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services in the Sargasso Sea

This report provides a variety of measures of the Sargasso Sea’s economic value and impact, especially net and gross revenues associated with ecosystem services supported by the sea. It captures just a small portion of these services and does not reflect their complete and total net value. Yet analysis of data on even this small portion suggests that the economic importance of the Sargasso Sea is significant. Economic expenditures and revenues directly or potentially linked to that sea range from tens to hundreds of million of dollars a year.

Authors: L. Pendleton, F. Krowicki, P. Strosser, and J. Hallett-Murdoch, Murdoch Marine

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Oceans & Coasts

Marine Ecosystem Services

Ecosystem Services

Marine

Environmental Economics

Reports

Mangrove Ecosystem Services Valuation: State of the Literature

A growing body of literature provides estimates of ecosystem services values derived from mangroves. If this literature is to be useful in decision making, it must have a solid foundation of value estimates. This paper identifies gaps in data and knowledge regarding mangrove ecosystem services valuations and recommends ways that future research could advance understanding of mangrove ecology, ecosystem services valuation, and conservation. 

Authors: Tibor Vegh, Megan Jungwiwattanaporn, Linwood Pendleton, and Brian Murray

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Oceans & Coasts

Marine Ecosystem Services

Ecosystem Services

Marine

Environmental Economics

Working Papers

Transitioning to a New Blue Economy: Proceedings of the December 2013 Economics of the Ocean Summit

Government's role in ocean environmental policy is often viewed as an economic cost to business rather than a boost to the economic value of the sea. But new evidence shows that the new blue economy can improve environmental quality in the ocean while generating new business opportunities. Furthermore, government has a key role to play in making, creating, and catalyzing this new blue economy. In December 2013, the Swedish government and Duke University hosted a meeting at the House of Sweden in Washington D.C. to discuss how innovative policy making and new business approaches together can improve the value and sustainability of the natural capital in our seas and estuaries. Decision makers, “big thinkers,” and practitioners came together for two days to share ideas and to catalyze discussion with a focus on the experiences of the United States and Sweden, two maritime countries that are forging new ocean economies.

Editors: Lisa Emelia Svensson and Linwood Pendleton 

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Oceans & Coasts

Working Papers

Working toward a More Valuable Ocean: Concepts and Ideas from Thinkers and Doers

By better defining the economic values of the services provided by ecosystems and integrating these values in the economy, the world will be better equipped to sustainably use these ecosystems and, in turn, increase their capacity. In December 2013, the Swedish government and Duke University hosted a meeting for decision makers, “big thinkers,” and practitioners to discuss how innovative policy making and new business models can augment the value of natural capital in our seas and estuaries. The forum at the House of Sweden revealed the degree to which businesses, governments, and multinational organizations are tackling the challenge of improving ocean health while enhancing human wellbeing and increasing returns to human enterprise. These short essays highlight keynote remarks from U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Kerri-Ann Jones, Rear Admiral Jonathon White of the U.S. Navy, Catarina Heder of the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, World Bank senior economist Pawan Patil, and others. 

Author(s): Lisa Emelia Svensson and Linwood Pendleton

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Oceans & Coasts

Marine Ecosystem Services

Law and Policy Mangement

Working Papers

Incorporating Ecosystem Services in Marine Planning: The Role of Valuation

This arcticle in the journal Marine Policy scrutinizes the use of ecosystem services valuation for marine planning. Lessons are drawn from the development and use of environmental valuation and cost-benefit analysis for policy making in the United States and the United Kingdom. Current approaches to marine planning in both countries are presented, and the role that ecosystem services valuation could play in this context is outlined. It highlights steps in the marine planning process during which valuation can inform marine planning and policy making as well as discusses methodological challenges to applying ecosystem services valuation techniques to marine planning. Finally, it makes recommendations to meet these challenges.

Author(s:) Tobias Börger, Nicola J. Beaumont, Linwood Pendleton, Kevin J. Boyle, Phillip Cooper, Stephen Fletcher, Tim Haab, Michael Hanemann, Tara L. Hooper, S. Salman Hussain, Rosimeiry Portela, Mavra Stithou, Joanna Stockhill, Tim Taylor, and Melanie C. Austen

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Oceans & Coasts

Marine Spatial Planning

Marine Ecosystem Services

Journal Articles

Ecology: Protect the Deep Sea

Formal governance structures and funds need to be put in place by 2020 to create networks of sea-floor reserves that maintain and restore biodiversity and functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, writes the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions Linwood Pendleton and colleagues in a comment piece in the journal Nature

More than one million square kilometres of the sea below 200 metres in depth are being ploughed by trawlers, and the next decade will see expansion of oil, gas and mineral extraction into deeper waters. At risk are ecosystems that contain thousands of undiscovered organisms, that contribute to the health and productivity of the ocean, that challenge our ideas of the extremes at which life can exist, and that are habitat and nursery for fisheries. Some threatened species have lifespans of hundreds of thousands of years or live in habitats that take millennia to form. The 2015 U.N. General Assembly should develop a new body to protect deep sea biodiversity, or extend the mandate of the International Seabed Authority (ISA) beyond mining to protect the deep-sea from a wider range of regulated commercial industrial activities, the authors suggest. The ISA could then apply the Convention on Biological Diversity targets for protecting and restoring 10% of the oceans, including the deep sea, by 2020. This conservation activity would require around $30 million per annum, which could be raised by taxing extractions from the deep sea, Pendleton and his co-authors propose.

Author (s): Edward B. Barbier, David Moreno-Mateos, Alex D. Rogers, James Aronson, Linwood Pendleton, Roberto Danovaro, Lea-Anne Henry, Telmo Morato, Jeff Ardron, Cindy L. Van Dover

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Science

Oceans & Coasts

Marine Spatial Planning

Marine Ecosystem Services

Ecosystem Services

Environmental Economics

Natural Resources

International

Journal Articles

Deep Sea Minerals and the Green Economy

Deep sea minerals are one of several potential non-renewable resource prospects that offer an opportunity for both resource-endowed countries and the global community to apply transformative policies to ensure future resource development. Mining companies are preparing to explore and extract minerals from the Pacific's seabed with the first commercial sea-floor massive sulphide mining venture on track to start in Papua New Guinea in 2014. In chapter eight, "Deep Sea Minerals and the Green Economy," authors explore five policy design principles that could be considered when evaluating potential development. 

Author (s): Elaine Baker, Yannick Beaudoin, and Linwood Pendleton

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Climate & Energy

Science

Oceans & Coasts

Marine Ecosystem Services

Marine

Environmental Economics

Natural Resources

International

Reports

Sustainable Economic Development and Deep Sea Mining

Ensuring that deep sea mining will have a positive impact on Pacific Island communities requires supporting not only the economic capital upon which sustainable and resilient economies are built, but also the social and environmental capital. In chapter four, "Sustainable Economic Development and Deep Sea Mining," authors explore the potential benefits and costs of deep sea mining to the economic and environmental capital of coastal and small island developing states in the region. The chapter also looks at traditional and emerging ways to determine the economic, environmental, and social costs and benefits of mining. 

Author(s): Linwood Pendleton, Anne Solgaard, Porter Hoagland, Paula Holland, Nick Hanley and Nils Jobstvogt

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Climate & Energy

Policy and Design

Science

Oceans & Coasts

Marine Ecosystem Services

Marine

Environmental Economics

Energy Sector

Natural Resources

International

Reports

East Coast Forum Summary: Habitat Considerations

Fisheries Leadership & Sustainability Forum staff published a final summary of discussions from the East Coast Fisheries Forum, June 26-29 in Annapolis, Maryland. This meeting convened federal fishery managers, scientists and National Marine Fisheries Service leadership to explore habitat conservation as a strategy for supporting sustainable fisheries.

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Adaptation

Quality

Oceans & Coasts

Fisheries

Ecosystem Services

Marine

National

Working Papers

Ecological Restoration in the Deep Sea

The deep sea is increasingly recognized as a fertile area for offshore industrialization. If existing activities in the deep sea continue or are expanded and new deep-ocean industries are developed, there is need to consider what is required to minimize repair resulting in damages to the deep-sea environment. This article in the journal Marine Policy develops the discourse on deep-sea restoration and offers guidance on planning and implementing ecological restoration projects for deep-sea ecosystems that are already, or are at threat of becoming degraded, damaged or destroyed. Two deep-sea restoration case studies in Scotland and Papua New Guinea are described and are contrasted with on-going salt marsh restoration in the San Francisco Bay.

Author (s): Cindy Van Dover, James Aronson, Linwood Pendleton, Samantha Smith, Sophie Arnaud-Haond, David Moreno-Mateos, Edward Barbier, David Billett, Keith Bowers, Roberto Danovaro, Alistair. Edwards, Steven Kellert, Telmo Morato, Edward Pollard, Alex Rogers, Robin Warner

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Science

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Oceans & Coasts

Ecosystem Services

Marine

Natural Resources

Sustainability

International

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