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Improving our Knowledge on Small-Scale Fisheries: Data Needs and Methodologies

Small-scale fisheries play an important role in contributing to food security, nutrition, livelihoods and local and national economies. However, there is often limited data and information available on their contributions, and hence small scale fisheries tend to be overlooked and marginalized in policy processes, leading to low levels of support for the sector. This proceedings provides a summary of the presentations, discussions, conclusions and recommendations of the “Workshop on Improving our Knowledge on Small-Scale Fisheries: Data Needs and Methodologies,” held at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations headquarters in Rome, Italy, in June 2017. Through the workshop, it was determined that a comprehensive new study to illuminate the hidden contributions of small-scale fisheries to the three dimensions of sustainable development, as well as identification of key threats to these contributions was needed. 

Authors: Xavier Basurto, Nicole Franz, David Mills, John Virdin, and Lena Westlund 

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Fisheries

Ocean and Coastal Policy

Proceedings

Fertilizer Management and Environmental Factors Drive N2O and NO3 Losses in Corn: A Meta-Analysis

Effective management of nitrogen (N) in agricultural landscapes must account for how nitrate (NO3) leaching and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions respond to local field-scale management and to broader environmental drivers such as climate and soil. This article in the Soil Science Society of America Journal reflects assemblage of a comprehensive database of fertilizer management studies with data on N2O (417 observations, 27 studies) and NO3 (388 observations, 25 studies) losses associated with 4R fertilizer N management in North American corn-cropping systems. Only one study measured both losses, and studies of N2O and NO3 differed by location, time period, and management practices. Meta-analysis of side-by-side comparisons found significant yield-scaled N2O emission reductions when SUPERU replaced urea or UAN, and when urea replaced anhydrous ammonia. The large effects of climate and soil, and the potential for opposite reactions to some management changes, indicate that more simultaneous measurements of N2O and NO3 losses are needed to understand their joint responses to management and environmental factors, and how these shape tradeoffs or synergies in pathways of N loss.

Authors: Alison J. Eagle, Lydia P. Olander, Katie L. Locklier, James B. Heffernan, and Emily S. Bernhardt

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Ecosystem Services

T-AGG

Journal Articles

Bridge Collaborative Practitioner’s Guide: Principles and Guidance for Cross-sector Action Planning and Evidence Evaluation

The health, development and environment sectors increasingly realize that they cannot achieve their respective goals by acting in isolation. Yet, as they pivot to act collectively, they face challenges in finding and interpreting evidence on sectoral interrelationships, and thus in developing effective evidence-based responses. Each sector already uses some form of evidence-based research, design and action planning, but methods vary and ideas about the strength of evidence differ, creating stumbling blocks in the way of cross-sector impact. A new initiative, called the Bridge Collaborative, sets out to spark cross-sector problem solving by developing common approaches that the three sectors could agree to and use. Specifically, the collaborative has focused on two linked areas of practice that could unlock cross sector collaboration – results chains and the evaluation of supporting evidence. Through this process, the collaborative has provided a platform for dialogue and collaboration among professionals from across these sectors, allowing for face-to-face interaction and discussion to build professional networks. This document captures a set of principles identified and used by the Collaborative, along with a detailed set of guidance for creating comparable results chains across sectors and evaluating evidence from multiple disciplines in common terms. These principles and guidance reflect novel contributions from the Bridge Collaborative as well as restatements of existing recommendations that resonated among health, development and environment researchers and practitioners.  

Lead Authors: Heather Tallis, Katharine Kreis, Lydia Olander, Claudia Ringler

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Climate and Energy

Ecosystem Services

Environmental Economics

Ocean and Coastal Policy

Water Policy

Reports

A Call to Action for Health, Environment, and Development Leaders

Our world is changing. Ongoing economic, technological, and demographic shifts are altering the nature of today’s major, global issues and challenging us to rethink our past and current approaches to solving them. The world’s population is increasing rapidly, and individuals are living longer than ever before. As our planet becomes more populated and prosperous, the demand for finite resources—such as water, energy, and food—are increasing rapidly. These trends escalate the urgency to find new ways of addressing persistent and growing challenges. Despite decades of evidence generation and progress on global challenges such as poverty, malnutrition, pollution, climate change, and humanitarian crises, these issues persist—and are intensifying in many cases. The current research and policy systems inhibit integrated approaches to problem solving. Too often, the health, environment, and development sectors work independently setting narrowly defined objectives and failing to consider consequences outside of their own sector. A Call to Action for Health, Environment, and Development Leaders and a companion paper Bridge Collaborative Practitioner’s Guide: Principles and Guidance for Cross-sector Action Planning and Evidence Evaluation contribute to a growing movement aimed at increasing cross-sectoral focused on shared evidence. 

Lead Authors: Heather Tallis, Barbara J. Merz, Cindy Huang, Katharine Kreis, Lydia Olander, Claudia Ringler

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Climate and Energy

Ecosystem Services

Environmental Economics

Ocean and Coastal Policy

Water Policy

Reports

Increasing the Engagement of Large Private Forestland Owners in Conservation Management

The involvement of large private and institutional forestland owners in conservation has been recognized as increasingly important for the successful implementation of landscape-scale conservation. However, public and non-governmental organization partners have found engagement of these landowners in conservation planning, management, and implementation to be a significant challenge. The Nicholas Institute for Policy Solutions at Duke University, the Sustainable Forestry Initiative, Inc., and the U.S. Forest Service hosted three meetings in April, September, and October 2016 to bring together leaders from each of these sectors to brainstorm approaches that could help increase the engagement of large private landowners in conservation. This paper summarizes ideas generated at these “all lands” meetings and provides a few concrete examples of conservation solutions across local and regional scales that could potentially be replicated to encourage large private landowner engagement.

Authors: John Burrows, Tim Hipp, and Lydia Olander

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Ecosystem Services

Working Papers

Report from the National Essential Fish Habitat Summit

In recognition of the twentieth anniversary of the inclusion of essential fish habitat (EFH) provisions into the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries), regional fishery management councils, and their partners convened the National EFH Summit in May 2016. Held in Annapolis, Maryland, this three-day participatory working meeting was facilitated by the Fisheries Leadership and Sustainability Forum and was organized by council and NOAA Fisheries staff and leadership. The goal of this summit was to bring together council and NOAA Fisheries habitat experts to assess and identify opportunities, challenges, and successful approaches for effective implementation of the MSA-EFH authorities across regions, and in a changing environment. The following themes emerged: (1) defining “essential” as it applies to EFH will remain a key challenge; (2) establishing clearly defined goals and objectives in the use of EFH authorities is necessary for practicable and effective conservation; (3) habitat conservation is paramount in maintaining ecosystem and fishery productivity and is a useful tool for implementing EBFM; (4) providing a “voice” for fisheries and building relationships and collaborations among NOAA Fisheries, the councils, federal action agencies, and the fishing community is vital for successful habitat conservation; (5) NOAA Fisheries and partners, including the fishing community, must continue to address habitat science gaps; (6) implementing shared mandates requires flexibility and acknowledgment of the differing regional contexts, innovations, and approaches for identifying, reviewing, revising, and conserving EFH; and (7) all EFH practitioners, including scientists, managers, and consultation staff, should strive to build a community of practice, maintain communications, and develop effective working relationships within and across regions.

Authors: Terra Lederhouse, Tony Marshak, Lauren Latchford, Rebecca Peters, and Katie Latanich 

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Fisheries

Ocean and Coastal Policy

Reports

Managing Fisheries in a Changing Environment: Discussions from the 2017 Forum, May 1–2, 2017, Monterey, California

The 2017 Forum convened by the Fisheries Leadership & Sustainability Forum (Fisheries Forum) explored the challenges of managing fisheries in a changing environment. To meet the mandates of the Magnuson-Stevens Act and achieve management objectives, federal fishery managers need to understand and respond to changing fisheries and marine ecosystems. The Forum explored the causes and implications of change, focusing on climate-related ocean changes; emerging capabilities to understand, model, and project future changes; pathways for integrating this information into decision making; and the opportunities for and challenges to flexibility and responsiveness in the council process. The Fisheries Forum convenes a series of forums for council members, council staff, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries staff. Each forum focuses on a topic with regional and national relevance. The forums are a unique opportunity for managers to explore emerging issues and questions and to share ideas and information across management regions.

Editors: Katie Latanich, Kim Gordon, and Caitlin Hamer

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Ocean and Coastal Policy

Fisheries

Proceedings

Tuna Fisheries: Pacific Possible Background Paper No. 3

This World Bank paper outlines a best-case scenario whereby improved management of tuna fisheries allows Pacific Island countries to gain as much as US$344 million per year in additional sustainable revenues and create 7,500 to 15,000 jobs by 2040. The paper recommends five policy strategies: increased regional integration, efficient fishing practices and catch limits, flexible access and harvest rights for fleets, investment in skills and labor, and inclusion of coastal communities in fisheries planning. The paper builds on work undertaken by the Forum Fisheries Agency and the Pacific Community through the Regional Roadmap for Sustainable Pacific Fisheries, which was endorsed by Pacific Island Forum leaders in 2015. It is part of the World Bank’s Pacific Possible series, which explores potentially transformative opportunities for Pacific Island countries that warrant further research, understanding, and policy action. The paper's results are summarized in Pacific Possible: Long-Term Economic Opportunities and Challenges for Pacific Island Countries.

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Ocean and Coastal Policy

Fisheries

Tuna Fisheries

Working Papers

Modeling Energy Efficiency as a Supply Resource

Energy efficiency may be an inexpensive way to meet future demand and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, yet little work has been attempted to estimate annual energy efficiency supply functions for electricity planning. The main advantage of using a supply function is that energy efficiency adoption can change as demand changes. Models such as Duke University’s Dynamic Integrated Economy/Energy/Emissions Model (DIEM) have had to rely on simplistic or fixed estimates of future energy efficiency from the literature rather than on estimates from energy efficiency supply curves. This paper attempts to develop a realistic energy efficiency supply curve and to improve on the current energy efficiency modeling. It suggests an alternative approach based on saved-energy cost data from program administrators and explains the methodologies employed to create the supply curve. It illustrates this approach with results from DIEM for various electricity demand scenarios. The analysis suggests that an additional 5%–9% of energy efficiency is deployed for every 10% increase in the cost of electricity. Therefore, DIEM “invested” in energy efficiency up to an inelastic point on the energy efficiency supply curve. By contrast, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s energy efficiency approach assumes that realized energy efficiency is fixed, and has no elasticity, regardless of changes to marginal costs or constraints that affect emissions or economics. 

Authors: Etan Gumerman abd Tibor Vegh

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Climate and Energy

Environmental Economics

Modeling

Working Papers

Adaptations to Maintain the Contributions of Small-Scale Fisheries to Food Security in the Pacific Islands

In several Pacific Island countries and territories, rapid population growth and inadequate management of coastal fish habitats and stocks is causing a gap to emerge between the amount of fish recommended for good nutrition and sustainable harvests from coastal fisheries. The effects of ocean warming and acidification on coral reefs, and the effects of climate change on mangrove and seagrass habitats, are expected to widen this gap. To optimise the contributions of small-scale fisheries to food security in Pacific Island countries and territories, researchers write in the journal Marine Policy that adaptations are needed to minimise and fill the gap and they outline policies needed to support lists of key recommended adaptations.

Authors: Johann D. BellAndres Cisneros-Montemayor, Quentin Hanich, Johanna E. Johnson, Patrick Lehodey, Bradley R. Moore, Morgan S. Pratchett, Gabriel Reygondeau, Inna Senina, John Virdin, and Colette C.C. Wabnitz.

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Ocean and Coastal Policy

Journal Articles

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