Publications

Filter by Topic:

Filter by Author:

Filter by Type:

Coastal “Blue” Carbon: A Revised Guide to Supporting Coastal Wetland Programs and Projects Using Climate Finance and Other Financial Mechanisms

Coastal wetlands conservation and restoration efforts aim to preserve biodiversity and generate benefits to local communities. A diverse portfolio of financing sources has been used for these efforts, including philanthropy, multi- and bilateral aid, in-country governmental funding, tourism-related and other usage fees, and fees and levies associated with wetlands-centric extractive industries. More recently, recognition of coastal wetlands as carbon sinks has opened the door for wetland managers to explore funding sources directed toward climate change mitigation. But finding appropriate funding sources to set up a coastal wetland carbon project or to develop a national carbon program (which includes or is solely focused on coastal wetlands) is often a challenge. Additionally, carbon finance alone often cannot support the necessary management activities. This report updates Keep It Fresh or Salty: An Introductory Guide to Financing Wetland Carbon Projects and Programs (2014). It uses revised guidance for program and project developers (governments, NGOs, local communities) and extends analysis to other finance avenues that can link and complement carbon activities with non-carbon-based financing sources such as debt-for-nature swaps. Rather than recommending one mechanism over any other, it encourages users to think holistically about the range of benefits provided by coastal wetlands conservation for climate mitigation and adaptation in order to optimize the full range of financial mechanisms.

Authors: D. Herr, T. Agardy, D. Benzaken, F. Hicks, J. Howard, E. Landis, A. Soles, and T. Vegh, with prior contributions from E. Pidgeon, M. Silvius, and E. Trines

Filters

Oceans and Coasts

Marine Ecosystem Services

Law and Policy Mangement

Environmental Economics

Blue Carbon

Reports

Do Protected Areas Reduce Blue Carbon Emissions? A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of Mangroves in Indonesia

Mangroves provide multiple ecosystem services such as blue carbon sequestration, storm protection, and unique habitat for species. Despite these services, mangroves are being lost at rapid rates around the world. Using the best available biophysical and socio-economic data, the authors present the first rigorous large-scale evaluation of the effectiveness of protected areas at conserving mangroves and reducing blue carbon emissions in the journal Ecological Economics. The analysis examines the success of protected areas in Indonesia between 2000 and 2010, finding that their use has avoided the loss of 14,000 hectares of mangrove habitat and approximately 13 million metric tons (carbon dioxide equivelent) of blue carbon emissions. 

Authors: Daniela A. Miteva, Brian C. Murray, and Subhrendu K. Pattanayak

Filters

Climate and Energy

Oceans and Coasts

Ecosystem Services

Environmental Economics

Blue Carbon

Journal Articles

Assessing the Economic Contribution of Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services in the Sargasso Sea

This report, which was revised April 2015, provides a variety of measures of the Sargasso Sea’s economic value and impact, especially net and gross revenues associated with ecosystem services supported by the sea. It captures just a small portion of these services and does not reflect their complete and total net value. Yet analysis of data on even this small portion suggests that the economic importance of the Sargasso Sea is significant. Economic expenditures and revenues directly or potentially linked to that sea range from tens to hundreds of million of dollars a year.

Authors: L. Pendleton, F. Krowicki, P. Strosser, and J. Hallett-Murdoch, Murdoch Marine

Filters

Oceans and Coasts

Marine Ecosystem Services

Ecosystem Services

Marine

Environmental Economics

Reports

Lessons Learned from an Ecosystem-Based Management Approach to Restoration of a California Estuary

Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is the dominant paradigm, at least in theory, for coastal resource management. However, there are still relatively few case studies illustrating thorough application of principles of EBM by stakeholders and decision makers. This Marine Policy article details work done at Elkhorn Slough, a California estuary. There, stakeholders collaboratively developed and evaluated large-scale restoration alternatives designed to decrease two types of rapid habitat change occurring in the estuary, erosion of channels and dieback of salt marsh. In the end, decision makers rejected large-scale alternatives altering the mouth of the estuary, and instead opted for small- to medium-scale restoration projects and recommended an added emphasis on reduction of nutrient-loading. The article describes seven challenges encountered during the application of EBM principles.

Author(s): Kerstin Wasson, Becky Suarez, Antonia Akhavan, Erin McCarthy, Judith Kildow, Kenneth S. Johnson, Monique C. Fountain, Andrea Woolfolk, Mark Silberstein, Linwood Pendleton, and Dave Feliz

Filters

Science

Oceans and Coasts

Estuaries

Journal Articles

Evaluating the Basic Elements of Transparency of Regional Fisheries Management Organizations

A new study in the journal Marine Policy examines, for the first time, the transparency of international fisheries management organisations operating on the high seas. Transparency is broadly recognized as an essential component of sustainable development and good governance, especially with regard to the management of natural resources. In order to develop a more secure investment environment and provide the public with knowledge of natural resource rents received by their governments, terrestrially-based standards such as the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative have been established to ensure greater fiscal transparency. The results that emerged from the study are mixed, highlighting a number of good and also weak practices. 

Author(s): Nichola A. Clark, Jeff A. Ardron, and Linwood H. Pendleton

Filters

Oceans and Coasts

Fisheries

National

Journal Articles

Signed Peer Reviews as a Means to Improve Scholarly Publishing

In a new article in the Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics, the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solution's Linwood Pendleton discusses peer review. Pendleton notes that peer review is necessary process with a long history of complaints, including over-solicitation of a small number of reviewers, delays, inadequate numbers of reviewers, and a lack of incentives to provide strong reviews or avoid reviews with little helpful information for the author. In the era of web-based distribution of research, through working paper or project reports, anonymous peer reviews are much less likely. The Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics will use signed peer reviews and an open communication process among authors, reviewers, and editors. This approach, to be developed over time, should lead to stronger communication of research results for the journal's readers.

Author(s): Linwood Pendleton 

Filters

Oceans and Coasts

Environmental Economics

Journal Articles

Vulnerability and Adaptation of U.S. Shellfisheries to Ocean Acidification

Ocean acidification is a global, long-term problem whose ultimate solution requires carbon dioxide reduction at a scope and scale that will take decades to accomplish successfully. A new perspective published in Nature Climate Change offers the first nationwide look at the vulnerability of our country’s $1 billion shellfish industry to the global, long-term problem of our oceans becoming more acidic due to the absorption of increasing amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. 

Author(s): Julia A. EkstromLisa SuatoniSarah R. CooleyLinwood H. PendletonGeorge G. WaldbusserJosh E. CinnerJessica RitterChris LangdonRuben van HooidonkDwight GledhillKatharine WellmanMichael W. BeckLuke M. Brander, Dan RittschofCarolyn DohertyPeter E. T. Edwards, and Rosimeiry Portela

Filters

Climate and Energy

Oceans and Coasts

Journal Articles

Mangrove Ecosystem Services Valuation: State of the Literature

A growing body of literature provides estimates of ecosystem services values derived from mangroves. If this literature is to be useful in decision making, it must have a solid foundation of value estimates. This paper identifies gaps in data and knowledge regarding mangrove ecosystem services valuations and recommends ways that future research could advance understanding of mangrove ecology, ecosystem services valuation, and conservation. 

Authors: Tibor Vegh, Megan Jungwiwattanaporn, Linwood Pendleton, and Brian Murray

Filters

Oceans and Coasts

Marine Ecosystem Services

Ecosystem Services

Marine

Environmental Economics

Working Papers

Transitioning to a New Blue Economy: Proceedings of the December 2013 Economics of the Ocean Summit

Government's role in ocean environmental policy is often viewed as an economic cost to business rather than a boost to the economic value of the sea. But new evidence shows that the new blue economy can improve environmental quality in the ocean while generating new business opportunities. Furthermore, government has a key role to play in making, creating, and catalyzing this new blue economy. In December 2013, the Swedish government and Duke University hosted a meeting at the House of Sweden in Washington D.C. to discuss how innovative policy making and new business approaches together can improve the value and sustainability of the natural capital in our seas and estuaries. Decision makers, “big thinkers,” and practitioners came together for two days to share ideas and to catalyze discussion with a focus on the experiences of the United States and Sweden, two maritime countries that are forging new ocean economies.

Editors: Lisa Emelia Svensson and Linwood Pendleton 

Filters

Oceans and Coasts

Working Papers

Working toward a More Valuable Ocean: Concepts and Ideas from Thinkers and Doers

By better defining the economic values of the services provided by ecosystems and integrating these values in the economy, the world will be better equipped to sustainably use these ecosystems and, in turn, increase their capacity. In December 2013, the Swedish government and Duke University hosted a meeting for decision makers, “big thinkers,” and practitioners to discuss how innovative policy making and new business models can augment the value of natural capital in our seas and estuaries. The forum at the House of Sweden revealed the degree to which businesses, governments, and multinational organizations are tackling the challenge of improving ocean health while enhancing human wellbeing and increasing returns to human enterprise. These short essays highlight keynote remarks from U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Kerri-Ann Jones, Rear Admiral Jonathon White of the U.S. Navy, Catarina Heder of the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, World Bank senior economist Pawan Patil, and others. 

Author(s): Lisa Emelia Svensson and Linwood Pendleton

Filters

Oceans and Coasts

Marine Ecosystem Services

Law and Policy Mangement

Working Papers

Pages